World Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1920-4531 print, 1920-454X online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, World J Oncol and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 10, Number 3, June 2019, pages 123-131

Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Review of the Current Trend in Africa


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Evaluation of the bladder neck and prostatic urethral for mucosal changes using white light microscopy.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Transurethral resection of an exophytic bladder tumor in fraction using a bipolar resectoscope at the Hospital General de Grand Yoff, Dakar, Senegal.


Table 1. Demographics, Age Range, Sex Ratio and the Commonest Presenting Symptoms of Bladder Cancer in Most Parts of sub-Saharan Africa
StudyStudy designStudy populationAge rangeMean age (years)Gender ratio (m/f)Commonest presenting symptoms
Pts: patients; m: male; f: female; UTI: urinary tract infection.
Nour et al [16] (Egypt)Prospective hospital based37 ptsN/AN/AAll menGross hematuria, UTI
Ochicha et al [13] (Nigeria)Retrospective hospital based51 pts5th and 6th decades48.85.2/1Gross hematuria
Diao et al [17] SenegalRetrospective hospital based428 pts12 - 86451.25/1UTI, gross hematuria
Takure et al [18] (Nigeria)Retrospective hospital based181 pts20 - 9058.6 ± 14.23.1/1N/A
Sule et al [19] (Nigeria)Retrospective hospital based327 pts10 - 9051.2 ± 11.747.6/1N/A
Forae et al [7] (Nigeria)Retrospective hospital based51 pts7 - 8654.9 ± 8.61.7/1N/A
Avakoudjo et al [20] (Benin)Retrospective hospital based35 pts20 - 9050.2 ± 16.33.0/1Irritative symptoms, gross hematuria
Samake et al [21] (Mali)Retrospective hospital based50 pts3 - 8152.3 ± 17.81.08/1N/A
Mapulanga et al [12] (Zambia)Prospective hospital based53 pts25 - 8057.41.3/1Gross hematuria
Ibrahim et al [22] (Nigeria)Retrospective hospital based144 pts29 - 8754.92.4/1Gross hematuria
Sharif-Askari et al [23] (Lybia)Retrospective cohort study835 pts10 - 8063 ± 14.78.8/1Gross hematuria
Biluts et al [8] (Ethiopia)Prospective hospital based87 pts20 - 9049.73 ± 1.51.6/1Gross hematuria
Rambau et al [15] (Tanzania)Retrospective hospital based185 pts23 - 9854.30.9/1


Table 2. Mode of Diagnosis (Mostly by White Light Cystoscopy), Stage at Presentation and Histological Types
StudyMode of diagnosisTumor stage at presentationHistopathological type of bladder cancer
Urothelial cancerSquamous cellOthers
NMIBC: non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Nour et al [16]CystoscopyNMIBC
Ochicha et al [13]N/AN/A35% (18/51)53% (27/51)12% (6/51)
Diao et al[17]CystoscopyN/AN/A50.7%29.2% Schistosoma ova
Takure et al [18]N/AN/A68.5% (122/181)19.9%11% Adenocarcinoma
Sule et al [19]40.6% NMIBC49.6%44.3%6.1%
Forae et al [7]70.% NMIBC64.7%5.9%29.4%
Avakoudjo et al [20]CystoscopyN/AN/A1 patient3 Adenocarcinomas
Samake et al [21]CystoscopyN/A20%76%4%
Mapulanga et al [12]N/A30.2%60.4%9.4 % Adenocarcinoma
Ibrahim et al [22]CystoscopyN/A30.5%63.8%5.7%
Sharif-Askari et al [23]CystoscopyN/A87.4%8.9%3.7%
Biluts et al [8]Cystoscopy85.5% NMIBC80.4%5,2%3.1% Adenocarcinoma
Rambau et al [15]35.1% NMIBC40.5%55.1%4.4%