World Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1920-4531 print, 1920-454X online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, World J Oncol and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 10, Number 4-5, October 2019, pages 162-168

A Review of Localized Prostate Cancer: An African Perspective


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Retropubic radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for an unfavorable intermediate-risk T2b localized prostate cancer with Gleason grade group 3 and PSA of 15 ng/dL at the Hopital General de Grand Yoff, Dakar Senegal. PSA: prostate specific antigen.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. The postoperative prostate specimen en bloc with the seminal vesicles attached.


Table 1. Demographics, Number of Patients and Presentation of Patients With Prostate Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa
StudyStudy designNumber of patientsMean age in yearsAge range in yearsPresentation
DRE: digital rectal exam; LUTS: lower urinary tract symptoms; PSA: prostate specific antigen.
Niang et al (Senegal) [8]Retrospective study1646543 - 96LUTS/suspicious DRE/elevated PSA
Amegbor et al (Togo) [12]Retrospective study2027045 - 95
Ndoye et al (Senegal) [13]Retrospective study10271 ± 951 - 96Back pain/LUTS/suspicious DRE/neurological signs
Tengue et al (Togo) [14]Prospective study23268.5 ± 9.6Back pain/LUTS
Anunobi et al (Nigeria) [15]Retrospective study2226660 - 69
Kyei et al (Ghana) [10]Prospective study2062.751 - 72LUTS
Kabore et al (Burkina) [16]Prospective study16868.59 ± 9.4130 - 95LUTS/suspicious DRE/elevated PSA
Wasike et al (Kenya) [17]Prospective study656750 - 100Suspicious DRE/elevated PSA
Kabore et al (Burkina) [18]Prospective study16671.552 - 86LUTS/suspicious DRE/elevated PSA
Gueye et al (Senegal) [19]Retrospective study1216952 - 88LUTS
Obiorah et al (Nigeria) [20]Retrospective study1987042 - 90
Babacar et al (Senegal) [21]Retrospective study3563 ± 5.941 - 74
Badmus et al (Nigeria) [22]Retrospective study1896840 - 100LUTS/suspicious DRE
Mawakyoma et al (Tanzania) [23]Prospective study1136848 - 100


Table 2. Mean PSA (ng/mL), the PSA Range as Well as the Histological Types
StudyPSA (ng/mL)Histological type
Mean PSA (ng/mL)PSA range (ng/mL)AdenocarcinomaOthers
PSA: prostate specific antigen.
Niang et al [8]1,447.575.88 - 21,660Commonest
Amegbor et al [12]88.57.8 - 560.495%1.9% squamous cell
Ndoye et al [13]1,447.57 ± 8125.88 - 21.66097.7 %
Tengue et al [14]123.5100%
Anunobi [15]< 4.1 - > 10099.1%
Kyei et al [10]16.12 ± 13.682.45 - 62.20
Kabore [16]483.3 ± 145.41 - 7,421100%
Kabore et al [18]5378.4 - 17,850100%
Gueye et al [19]72.26 - 578.9
Obiorah et al [20]100%
Babacar et al [21]256 - 80100%
Badmus et al [22]98.4%Adenosquamous
Mawakyoma [23]2.6 - > 2099.1%Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma


Table 3. Few Sub-Saharan Studies Documented the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer
StudyLocalized CaP (%)GleasonAvailable treatment modalityOutcome
CaP: prostate cancer; EBRT: external beam radiation therapy.
Niang et al [24]< 27%Radical prostatectomy, bilateral orchiectomy, hormonotherapy
Tengue et al [14]6.40%Radical prostatectomy (6.4%) hormonotherapy (93.1%)15.1% mortality
Anumobi et al [15]9
Kyei et al [10]Localized6Radical prostatectomy/radiotherapy/hormonotherapyAnastomotic urethral stricture, bladder neck stenosis
Kabore et al [16]13.10%Hormonotherapy, radical prostatectomy
Wasike et al [17]12.50%87.7% mortality
Kabore et al [18]< 26%≥ 7
Badmus et al [22]5.80%Hormonotherapy
Gueye et al [19]43.80%
Obiorah et al [20]8
Babacar et al [21]Localized6Radical prostatectomyIncontinence, erectile dysfunction
Ikuerowo et al [25]26%> 7
Yamoah et al [26]34.60%≤ 6EBRT, brachytherapy, hormonotherapy