World Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1920-4531 print, 1920-454X online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, World J Oncol and Elmer Press Inc
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Original Article

Volume 11, Number 4, August 2020, pages 173-181

Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers and Possible Risk Factors Across Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Systematic Review


Figure 1.
Figure 1. The age-standardized rates and cumulative risk of O-OPCs in GCC member states [8, 9].
Figure 2.
Figure 2. (a) Estimated age-standardized mortality rates of oral cancer individuals (CID-10: C00-C08) in GCC countries per 100,000 persons. (b) Estimated age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer individuals (CID-10: C00-C08) in GCC countries per 100,000 persons.
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Meta-analyses (forest plot) of prevalence rates with respect to the report’s country.
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Forest plot of smoking and risk of oral cancer.


Table 1. Incidence, Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of O-OPCs in GCC Countries
Study parametersCountrySource of dataPeriodNo. of cases/biopsies) under study (n)Age groupCommon malignant lesions typeThe highest site of lesionRisk factor distribution among patientsReference
*Included in this study: Bahrain, Kuwait Oman; #Included in this study: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE. NS: not specified; OSCC: oral squamous cell carcinoma; SCC: squamous cell carcinoma; OML: oral and maxillofacial; VC: verrucous sarcoma; S: sarcoma; ADC: adenocarcinoma; MEC: mucoepidermoid carcinoma; ACC: acinar cell carcinoma; O-OPCs: oral and oropharyngeal cancers; GCC: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council; HPV: human papillomavirus.
Retrospective studySaudi ArabiaCancer registry1994 - 20075,86229 - 71OC, PC = 245 (4.2%)Tongue (> 42%)NS[16]
A multicenter, retrospective study of oral biopsiesUAEHospital records2008 - 201099228 - 89OSCCTongue (51.9%)NS[13]
Cross-sectionalExtended the Middle East* and North AfricaCancer registry2008252NSOC, pharynxOCHPV[18]
Case-controlSaudi ArabiaHospital-based2011 - 2013599≥ 18NSSmokeless keratosis (6.3%)Tobacco chewers[19]
Case-controlSaudi ArabiaHospital-based201448About 65.3OCNSKhat 2 (1/28%)
Shannah 39 (27.08%)
Cigarette 10 (6.94%)
Pipe 9 (6.24%)
Prospective studySaudi ArabiaHospital records2002 - 20092,23236 - 54Head and neck/ORNNasopharyngeal 35 (39.2%)
Mandible 27 (30.4%)
Smoking 42 (47.3%)
Smokeless 6 (6.7%)
Cross-sectionalMiddle East# and North AfricaPublic database20128,928NSOCC-OPC, NSNSNS[10]
Retrospective studySaudi ArabiaHospital recordsNS2,850≤ 10 - 70SCC, VC, STongue (47%)NS[22]
Retrospective studySaudi ArabiaHospital records2009 - 2014714< 1 - 100OML-OSCCTongueShammah user OSCC 45.5%
Male: 87 (31.6%)
Female: 40 (68.4%)
Retrospective studyUAEHospital records/cancer registry1998 - 2014314NSADC, SCC, MEC, ACCSalivary gland tumor (74%)NS[23]