Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers and Possible Risk Factors Across Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Systematic Review

Wedad Saeed Alqahtani, Nawaf Abdulrahman Almufareh, Halah A. Al-Johani, Rasil Khaled Alotaibi, Consul Iworikumo Juliana, Nada Hamad Aljarba, Abdulqader Saeed Alqahtani, Bandary Almarshedy, Abdelbaset Mohamed Elasbali, Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed, Bassam Ahmed Almutlaq


Background: In recent years, there is an emerging increase in the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers (O-OPCs) across the Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Consequently, this review aimed to explore the epidemiology and possible risk factors of O-OPCs in GCC countries.

Methods: Data published after 2008 related to O-OPCs in GCC countries were obtained through electronic searches in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE and Google Scholar. Keywords related to the association between O-OPCs metrics (epidemiology and risk factors) and GCC countries were used for electronic searches.

Results: The overall prevalence of OPCs increased significantly over time (40-51%) in some countries (Saudi Arabia and Arab Emigrated) of the Gulf regions. The pooled risk factor was 3.4 (2.5 - 4.7). Among the risk factors, human papillomavirus and the use of smoke and smokeless tobacco revealed odds ratio (OR) 3.31 (3.13 - 4.5) and 0.60 (0.45 - 0.80) at 95% confidence interval (CI).

Conclusion: A positive correlation between factors like age, diet, hygiene, genetics, viral and bacterial infection, consumption of alcohol and tobacco products with OPC-MFC is suggested.

World J Oncol. 2020;11(4):173-181
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1283


Oral cancer; GCC countries; Oropharyngeal cancer; HPV; Tobacco

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