Bimodal Age Distribution in Cancer Incidence

Shreya Desai, Achuta K. Guddati


Cancer is caused by accumulation of genetic changes which include activation of protooncogenes and loss of tumor suppressor genes. The age-specific incidence of cancer in general increases with advancing age. However, some cancers exhibit a bimodal distribution. Commonly recognized cancers with bimodal age distribution include acute lymphoblastic leukemia, osteosarcoma, Hodgkins lymphoma, germ cell tumors and breast cancer. Delayed infection hypothesis has been used to provide explanation for the early childhood peak in leukemias and lymphomas, whereas the peak at an older age is associated with accumulation of protooncogenes and weakened immune system. Further genetic analysis and histopathological variations point to distinctly different cancers, varying genetically and histologically, which are often combined under a single category of cancers. Tumor characteristics and age distribution of these cancers varies also by population groups and has further implications on cancer screening methods. Although significant advances have been made to explain the bimodal nature of such cancers, the specific genetic mechanisms for each age distribution remain to be elucidated. Further distinction among the different cancer subtypes may lead to improvements in individual risk assessments, prevention and enhancement of treatment strategies.

World J Oncol. 2022;13(6):329-336


Bimodal; Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Delayed infection; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Craniopharyngioma; Breast cancer; Germ cell tumors; Cervical cancer

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



World Journal of Oncology, bimonthly, ISSN 1920-4531 (print), 1920-454X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.