Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 in Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

Pablo Jose Erraez-Jaramillo, Evelyn Aguirre-Flores, Luis Fernando Athie-Meza, Mariana G. Morales-Garcia, Carlos Daniel Izquierdo-Tolosa, Erika Adriana Martinez-Castaneda, Jose Manuel Ruiz-Morales, Rita Dorantes-Heredia


Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant forms of neoplasia worldwide; programmed death protein 1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor of T lymphocytes, and its ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), play an important role in the ability of tumor cells to evade the hosts immune system.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive, observational study using retrospective data and an open evaluation using immunohistochemistry to determine the general prevalence of PD-L1 expression in 63 women with breast cancer who underwent a modified radical mastectomy, or quadrantectomy, with axillary lymph node removal.

Results: The prevalence of PD-L1 expression was 32% in patients with breast cancer treated with radical mastectomy. PD-L1 expression was higher in patients with large tumor size (19% for pT1, 37% for pT2, 50% for pT3, and 100% for pT4), metastasis in regional lymph nodes (25% for N0, 38% for N1, 75% for pN2, and 38% for pN3), and higher histological grade carcinoma (0% for grade 1, 23% for grade 2, and 50% for grade 3).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous in breast cancer tumors and that its expression varies highly in tumor regions over time. The evaluation of PD-L1 expression is significant, because of the therapeutical implications that could improve the outcomes and prognosis of these patients.

World J Oncol. 2022;13(4):185-189


Breast cancer; Neoplasm; Obesity; Pathogenesis

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