Distinct Prognostic Factors of Ground Glass Opacity and Pure-Solid Lesion in Pathological Stage I Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma

Wen Yu Zhai, Wing Shing Wong, Fang Fang Duan, Da Chuan Liang, Li Gong, Shu Qin Dai, Jun Ye Wang


Background: Ground glass opacity (GGO) is associated with favorable survival in lung cancer. However, the relevant evidence of the difference in prognostic factors between GGO and pure-solid nodules for pathological stage I invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC) is limited. We aimed to identify the impact of GGO on survival and find prognostic factor for part-GGO and pure-solid patients.

Methods: Between December 2007 and August 2018, patients with pathological stage I IAC were retrospectively reviewed and categorized into the pure-GGO, part-GGO, and pure-solid groups. Survival curves were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank tests. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and Cox regression models were used to obtained prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: The number of patients with pure-GGO, part-GGO, and pure-solid was 134, 540, and 396, respectively. Part-GGO patients with consolidation-tumor-ratio (CTR) > 0.75 had similar outcome to those with pure-solid nodules. In part-GGO patients, CTR was negatively associated with OS (P = 0.007) and solid tumor size (STS) was negatively associated with DFS (P < 0.001). Visceral pleural invasion (VPI) was negatively associated with OS (P = 0.040) and DFS (P = 0.002). Sublobectomy was negatively associated with OS (P = 0.008) and DFS (P = 0.005), while extended N1 stations examination was associated with improved DFS (P = 0.005) in pure-solid patients.

Conclusions: Though GGO component is a positively prognostic factors of patients with pathological stage I IAC, a small proportion of GGO components is not associated with favorable survival. VPI, STS and CTR are the significant predictors for part-GGO patients. Sublobectomy, especially wedge resection should be used cautiously in pure-solid patients.

World J Oncol. 2022;13(5):259-271
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1499


Lung adenocarcinoma; Ground glass opacity; Solid tumor size; Consolidation tumor ratio; Prognostic factor

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