Neurological Adverse Effects of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy

Farhan Khalid, Rajshree Gupta, Rajvi Gor, Dairya Gor, Vinit Singh, Hussam Eltoukhy


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell constitute recently approved novel therapies targeted to treat a wide number of malignancies. Both the treatments modulate the immune system and can cause a number of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including polyendocrinopathies, gastrointestinal and neurological complications. This literature review focuses on the neurological side effects of these therapies as these are uncommon and alter the course of the treatment. Neurological complications involve the peripheral and central nervous system, including polyneuropathy, myositis, myasthenia gravis, demyelinating polyradiculopathy, myelitis, and encephalitis. If early recognized, the neurological complications can be treated effectively with steroids to reduce the potential of short-term and long-term complications. Therefore, early identification and treatment of irAEs are needed to optimize the outcomes associated with ICPI and CAR T-cell therapies.

World J Oncol. 2023;14(2):109-118


Neurological adverse effects; Immunology; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Chimeric antigen receptor T cells

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