The Olfaction Ability of Medical Detection Canine to Detect Prostate Cancer From Urine Samples: Progress Captured in Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Syah Mirsya Warli, Naufal Nandita Firsty, Adrian Joshua Velaro, Zaimah Zulkarnaini Tala


Background: To date, early cancer detection is considered vital to reduce the global cancer burden through low-cost, but accurate screening modalities. The anatomical positioning of prostate cancer (PCa) created a potentially distinctive diagnostic method through the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urine, which might be detectable not by humans but by canine species. This review aimed to capture the potential of the medical detection canine (MDC) to detect PCa by providing its diagnostic accuracy estimation on urine odor testing.

Methods: Databases, e.g., MEDLINE, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest, were searched to identify the studies. We focused on accessible original research, comparing the diagnostic utility of trained female MDC and histopathology examination as the gold standard for PCa diagnosis. The statistical analysis was performed in Meta-DiSc 1.4 and presented in diagnostic values, i.e., sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive or negative likelihood ratio (LR+ or LR-), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) value, to conclude the Sn-Sp in a single outcome.

Results: Female German Shepherds were the most commonly utilized MDC from the five studies included in the final analysis. We estimate the pooled diagnostic value of eight different MDCs, with the findings as follows: Sn (0.95 (0.94 - 0.97)), Sp (0.92 (0.90 - 0.93)), LR+ (4.48 (1.90 - 10.58)), LR- (0.12 (0.01 - 1.42)), DOR (35.39 (2.90 - 432.53)), and an AUC value of 0.9232.

Conclusions: MDCs olfaction ability holds considerable potential on its diagnostic accuracies to distinguish the urine of PCa individuals by identifying its volatilome property.

World J Oncol. 2023;14(5):358-370


Canine; Odor; Olfaction ability; Prostate cancer; Urine; Volatile organic compound

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